The Mughal Emperors were the rulers of the Mughal Empire, and they played a significant role in shaping the history and culture of the Indian subcontinent. The first Mughal Emperor was Babur, who established the Mughal Empire in India in 1526. Babur was succeeded by his son, Humayun, who was later overthrown by Sher Shah Suri. However, Humayun regained the throne with the help of the Persian ruler, Shah Tahmasp.
The most famous Mughal Emperor was Akbar the Great, who ruled from 1556 to 1605. Akbar was known for his liberal policies and religious tolerance. He abolished the Jizya tax imposed on non-Muslims and introduced a new religion called Din-i-Ilahi, which was a blend of various religions.
The Mughal Empire was a period of significant historical importance in South Asia, spanning from the early 16th to the mid-19th century. The Mughals were an Islamic dynasty of Turco-Mongol origin that ruled over a vast territory across the Indian subcontinent, including present-day India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh.
During their reign, the Mughals introduced many cultural, artistic, and architectural advancements, leaving a lasting impact on the region’s history and identity. The Mughal emperors were known for their patronage of the arts, literature, and architecture, as well as their military conquests and territorial expansion.
The Mughal dynasty, also referred to as the “Shāhanshāhān-e-Hindustan” in Persian and “مغل شہنشاہ” in Urdu, were the preeminent rulers of the Mughal Empire in the Indian subcontinent, encompassing present-day India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh. The Mughal emperors, who adopted the title of Badshah (meaning “great king”), were primarily recognized as “emperors” by the translation of their Persian title “Shahanshah.” Their reign began in 1526 and extended across much of the subcontinent by 1707, following which their power significantly declined. Nevertheless, they continued to hold nominal control over regions until the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
The Mughal lineage, originating from Central Asia, belonged to the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty. Babur, the founder of the Mughals, was a prince from the Fergana Valley (currently part of Uzbekistan) and also a descendant of Timur (known as Tamerlane in the West). Babur was further linked to Genghis Khan through Timur’s marriage to a princess from the Genghisid lineage.
Some of the most prominent Mughal emperors include Babur, Akbar, Jahangir, Shah Jahan, and Aurangzeb. Each emperor made their unique contributions to the empire’s development and legacy, whether it be through political and economic reforms, cultural advancements, or military conquests.
Mughal Emperors List
|Emperor||Full Name||Birth On||Expire On|
|Babur||Zahir-ud-din Muhammad||14th February 1483||26 December 1530|
|Humayun||Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun||6th March 1508||27 January 1556|
|Akbar||Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar||14th October 1542||27th October 1605|
|Jahangir||Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim||20th September 1569||28th October 1627|
|Shah-Jahan||Shahab-ud-din Muhammad khurram||5th January 1592||22nd January 1666|
|Alamgir I||Muhy-ud-din Muhammad Aurangzeb||4th November 1618||3rd March 1707|
|Bahadur Shah||Qutb-ud-din Muhammad Mu’azzam shah Alam||14th October 1643||27th February 1712|
|Jahandar Shah||Mu’izz-ud-din Jahandar shah Bahadur||9th may 1661||12th February 1713|
|Farrukhsiyar||Farrukhsiyar||20th August 1685||29th April 1719|
|Rafi ud-Darajat||Rafi ud-Darajat||30th November 1699||9th June 1719|
|Shah Jahan II||Rafi ud-Daulah||June 1696||19 September 1719|
|Muhammad Shah||Roshan Akhtar Bahadur||17th August 1702||26th April 1748|
|Ahmad Shah Bahadur||Ahmad Shah Bahadur||23rd December 1725||1st January 1775|
|Alamgir II||Aziz-ud-din||6th June 1699||29 November 1759|
|Shah Jahan III||Muhi-ul-millat||1711||1772|
|Shah Alam II||Ali Gauhar||25th June 1728||19th November 1806|
|Muhammad shah Bahadur Jahan IV||Bidar Bakhat||1749||1790|
|Akbar Shah II||Mirza Akbar||22nd April 1760||28th September 1837|
|Bahadur Shah II||Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar||24th October 1775||7th November 1862|
Mughal Empire Rulers List PDF
The Mughal Empire ruled much of the Indian subcontinent from the early 16th century to the mid-19th century, and was characterized by its military conquests, artistic achievements, and architectural marvels. The empire was led by a succession of powerful rulers who left their mark on history. Some of the most famous Mughal emperors include Babur, who founded the empire in 1526, Akbar the Great, who expanded the empire to its greatest extent and fostered a culture of religious tolerance, and Shah Jahan, who built the iconic Taj Mahal. Other notable rulers include Jahangir, Aurangzeb, and Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last emperor of the Mughal dynasty.
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Union List, Subjects under Union List, State List and Concurrent List PDF